Uniformity Correction of CMOS Image Sensor Modules for Machine Vision Cameras

Szedő, Gábor and Lovas, Róbert (2022) Uniformity Correction of CMOS Image Sensor Modules for Machine Vision Cameras. SENSORS, 22 (24). ISSN 1424-8220 10.3390/s22249733


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Flat-field correction (FFC) is commonly used in image signal processing (ISP) to improve the uniformity of image sensor pixels. Image sensor nonuniformity and lens system characteristics have been known to be temperature-dependent. Some machine vision applications, such as visual odometry and single-pixel airborne object tracking, are extremely sensitive to pixel-to-pixel sensitivity variations. Numerous cameras, especially in the fields of infrared imaging and staring cameras, use multiple calibration images to correct for nonuniformities. This paper characterizes the temperature and analog gain dependence of the dark signal nonuniformity (DSNU) and photoresponse nonuniformity (PRNU) of two contemporary global shutter CMOS image sensors for machine vision applications. An optimized hardware architecture is proposed to compensate for nonuniformities, with optional parametric lens shading correction (LSC). Three different performance configurations are outlined for different application areas, costs, and power requirements. For most commercial applications, the correction of LSC suffices. For both DSNU and PRNU, compensation with one or multiple calibration images, captured at different gain and temperature settings are considered. For more demanding applications, the effectiveness, external memory bandwidth, power consumption, implementation, and calibration complexity, as well as the camera manufacturability of different nonuniformity correction approaches were compared.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics and Computer Science > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science / számítástechnika, számítógéptudomány
Divisions: Laboratory of Parallel and Distributed Systems
SWORD Depositor: MTMT Injector
Depositing User: MTMT Injector
Date Deposited: 25 Jan 2023 08:17
Last Modified: 11 Sep 2023 15:03
URI: https://eprints.sztaki.hu/id/eprint/10452

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